Tips For Dealing With Back Pain

A shockingly large number of people suffer from a variety of back pain. While some of these have obvious causes such as disease or injury, there are many people who have no particular cause. Some specialists refer to this as non-specific back pain. Even if you have only experienced it for a couple of days, this type of discomfort can be debilitating and disconcerting.

One of the first things you need to do is to go to get this type of pain checked out. You can opt to visit doctors or chiropractors. Either way, you should discover if there is a specific cause for the type of discomfort you are experiencing. Here are some other ways that you can diminish or get rid of this pain:

Healing Hands

Healing Hands-Chiropractors

One of the best ways to deal with back pain is to with the help of chiropractors. This is because these individuals are largely involved with this region of the body and how it works. Thus, they will be better equipped to help you overcome the pain. This might involve an adjustment, or some other form of care. In addition to providing relief, these individuals will also help you avoid a future incident as well. They will pinpoint what you need to change about your lifestyle or how you might need to improve your health.

Exercise Classes

Exercise Classes

Depending on your physician’s diagnosis, you may be advised to take certain exercise classes. This is usually done if there are certain muscles or body parts that are deemed too weak. With these classes, you will learn how to strengthen these areas. This way, you will be able to overcome the pain. Furthermore, you will also be taught how to improve your posture. Then, you will be able to hold yourself in a manner that will help you to sit and stand better. You will be less likely to experience discomfort in your back.

Aquatic Therapy

Aquatic therapy involves the use of water to help your back muscles. The warm water and buoyancy helps to minimize the stress placed on that region. It also aids in gently stretching and strengthening the necessary muscles. The muscles and joints are also able to relax and reduce tension in the area. The temperature and the consistency of these pools also help to soothe the body all over. This creates a calming effect for individuals who have been in considerable pain.

These are just a few of the things you can do get rid of or at least minimise your back pain. You can do one or more of these things to get better results.

Understanding The Types Of Dentures And Their Making


Dental health is a major concern for leading a healthy lifestyle. Cavities or tooth decaying is a common problem faced by most people. In some cases, the tooth might fall off making it difficult for you to chew food, inflecting pain and other severe complexities. The only answer to such a problem is dentures. However, it is seen that people often associate the term denture as something meant only for elderly adults. But in a real sense, people of any age facing such problems can adhere to the use of a denture.

Get a denture as per your requirement

Dentures come in various types of apparatus which are used according to the requirement of the patient. Although partial and full denture clinic is used for a number of reasons, but not all of the dentures are constructed in a similar manner or find use for similar cases. Also, different types of dentures require different care to make sure that they create no complication. Upon visiting a dentist, he/she identifies your denture requirement and helps you with the same so that you are able to regain your normal chewing ability.

Material used for full dentures

Denture relines which aim to get rid of your dental problems, usually come in a myriad of forms being made from different materials. Full dentures are usually made up of synthetic plastic. Also the teeth are often made of plastic resin. There are also teeth made up of porcelain to give you a natural appearance and feel making them comfortable for use. If you are seeking the one which is used by the majority, it is the porcelain full set denture which is mostly used by people to enjoy the natural feel it gives.

Partial denture and its construction

Another type of denture is the partial denture which uses a metal wire frame usually covered with plastic resin forming the base. The teeth are then made either of resin or porcelain, giving you the option to select one as per your comfort level. Although the porcelain teeth are preferred more for their natural feel, the resin teeth also offer a similar appearance and feel. Along with these metal wire frames based partial dentures, there are also this type of dentures, which come without any metal wire frame. They simply restore to a resin base as their framework, but perform their function without giving birth to any complications.

Apart from these, flexite is another material in use for dentures in modern days. For enjoying a bit more of the comfort, so you are now opting for flexite dentures as they fit flexibly preserving the integrity of your dental health. Consult a reputed dentist and make sure you opt for the best solution for your teeth.

Lung Cancer – A Lethal Killer

Lung Cancer-A Lethal Killer


Lung cancer is the most frequently lethal cancer in the United States. Among all causes of death, lung cancer ranks second after heart disease for males, and third after heart and cerebrovascular disease for females. In 2002 alone, over 150,000 people in the United States died of lung cancer.

Cancers form when certain cells in the body grow and multiply in an uncontrolled fashion. When such uncontrolled growth affects lung tissues, a lung cancer forms. Lung cancer is classified into two main types- small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. An estimated 80 percent of lung cancer patients have non-small cell lung cancer.

Smoking or inhaling second hand smoke, environmental exposures such as asbestos and radon gas, and a family history of lung cancer increase the risk of an individual getting lung cancer. However, some lung cancers arise in the absence of these risk factors. Factors that may protect people from lung cancer are not smoking, avoiding second hand smoke, a diet rich in fresh vegetables and fruit, and limiting exposure to potential carcinogens in the environment such as radon.

About 25 percent of people with lung cancer report no symptoms at the time of diagnosis. In the remainder, symptoms and signs vary, and may include breathlessness, a long lasting cough, coughing up blood, chest pain, wheezing, repeated chest infections, fever, and weight loss. A diagnosis of lung cancer is made on the basis of cell type, x-ray findings and symptoms. The cancer is then staged depending on the extent of its spread within the chest cavity and to other parts of the body. Treatment of lung cancer depends on the cell type and on the stage of cancer at the time of diagnosis. Treatment typically includes surgery, chemotherapy and radiation. Survival rates depend on the type and stage of lung cancer at the time of diagnosis.

Lung Cancer provides detailed information on Asbestos Lung Cancer, Lung Cancer, Lung Cancer Stages, Lung Cancer Survival Rate and more. Lung Cancer is affiliated with Asbestos Exposure.

Travelling Is Indeed Fun When You Know The Way


People with moving problem find it difficult to ride a bike or any kind of vehicle. This is indeed a matter of disappointment and poses great difficulty. If you are also facing a similar situation, then do not lose hope as rapid advancement in the field of modern transportation will solve your problem of moving to a great extent. You no longer have to depend on other members of your family for moving from one place to another. Moreover, the vehicle will give you complete satisfaction when you ride it on the road. To know in detail read the article and get hold of the particular vehicle as soon as possible.

Move independently

Now moving from one destination to another is so simple and easy for the people with limited mobility as portable mobility scooters are available in the market. This scooter is built keeping in mind the requirement of the users and have been designed for outdoor and indoor. This will give you freedom of movement. You can move independently and will not have to depend on any members of your family for taking you out on the road. This vehicle ensures comfortable moving with all safety features.


The scooters for people with difficulty in moving have been designed to move both in the outdoor space as well as for indoor moving. When you ride the vehicle you will completely feel comfortable and will experience a smooth ride. The scooter is packed with all safety features and has robust and reliable power units. The essential features include brake lights, anti-corrosion bodywork, and automatic speed controller. This particular vehicle for the people with restricted mobility has a stylish look and is affordable. It has been found that this product has become immensely popular in the recent years for the comfort and convenience the vehicle is offering.

Benefits of buying online

When you want to move comfortably without taking help from anybody then wheelchairs for sale is the ultimate option. You will find the product in the online store. Make sure that you purchase these lightweight product from a premium online store that sells quality mobility product. This vehicle is durable and has a classy look and is lightweight. A wide range of electric moveable scooters as well as the wheelchairs is available in the market to suit the need of all the users. You can customize the vehicles, according to your requirement.

The vehicles are available in various colors and come with various attachments which include lockable front box, Invacare cushions, and rear seat baskets. So place your order at the earliest in the online mobility product shopping stores, and travel conveniently.

Early Childhood Parenting Tips

When I approach a child, he inspires in me two sentiments; tenderness for what he is, and respect for what he may

If you are a first time parent or even a grandparent who is mummy or daddy’s helper, or if you are a parent once more but need a crash refresher course, then this is the site for you.

Good Parenting

As parents, all of us have passed through the phase of both pleasure and pain, in bringing up our children. Pleasure in seeing them grow and develop, and how they reciprocate the love we give them. Knowledge and understanding of how a child grows and learns can help parents avoid many problems. Child development encompasses the unfolding of behaviors from immature to mature; from patterns that are simple to those that are complex; and the evolution of a human being from dependency to autonomous adulthood. In fact, most of us will discover that much of our child’s behavior is normal and when we understand this, we will be able to modify our attitudes and our child-rearing techniques.

Raising Children in Their First Six Years

Parenting is probably one of the hardest jobs an adult will undertake, but probably also the one for which the least amount of training and preparation is provided. Correct parenting does not come naturally in these days of sophisticated living. Hence, 101 early childhood parenting tips is a site prepared to include the bits and pieces of child-rearing information and highlights of the major theories of leading professionals on early childhood growth and development in the hope that it will provide answers to some of the many questions raised by inexperienced parents who are in need of information on many common issues of parenting.

This site will also describe how parents can sensitively intervene to correct a particular behavior, to enrich the learning environment, or to further a child’s social interactions with age mates or adults other than the parents. This site will also take you through all those child care tasks you will take on in the first day, week, month and years of a baby’s life.

It will help you find all the practical information you need to know, fast! 101 early childhood parenting tips are especially concerned with the formative early years of the life cycle — the first six years of life.

Practical Child Care Information

We stress that 101 early childhood parenting tips cannot tell parents how to rear their children; rather, it is written with the intention to try to help parents understand the ages and stages of early childhood growth and development. As you follow through the pages, it is our hope that you will become better equipped as a parent and care giver to deal with the issues that may affect your child during these early years of life.

Children Safety and Environment

Your life will never be the same after your baby’s arrival. Your home which was used to be a haven suddenly turns into an environment full of potential hazards where most accidents could happen once your baby becomes mobile.

Children are vulnerable. They are incapable of warding off danger and thus prone to injury. Their perpetual inquisition for amusement and exploration can get them into serious consequences. All parents wish they could protect their child forever. Unfortunately, this is mere wishful thinking and your over-protectiveness may deprive him of the opportunity to observe and learn from the environment.

Hence, no matter how difficult it is, a balance needs to be established between children safety and providing freedom for the child to explore and grow. Topics and subjects on children safety and environment are something that every parent should not have taken for granted. To have peace of mind, efforts are needed to childproof your home and environment to avoid accidents. This involves clearing away or altering the potential dangers in your child environment.

In this section, some useful precautionary tips are suggested to help parents create a ‘safe world’ for their child. Information on first aid is also provided for when precautions taken do not work as expected.

Education and Learning

Education and learning is a lifelong process. The most intensive and sensitive period of your child’s cognitive (mental) development is from early infancy to 10 years of age. His development during the first 6 years, especially, will pave the way for his future academic, creative and social accomplishments. During this time, your child’s brain will act like an ‘information sponge’ to help him quickly learns really important things. Your job as a parent is to stimulate your child’s mind and provide every opportunity for him to keep developing in preparation for primary school and beyond. 

Children are all different in what they can do and what interests them. However, they tend to develop by stages. 

Hiv Testing


All About Hiv Testing

HIV test kits used both to screen donor blood, blood components and cellular products, and to diagnose, treat and monitor persons with HIV and AIDS are regulated in the United
States by the FDA.

HIV tests to detect antibodies, antigens or RNA in serum, plasma, oral fluid, dried blood spot or urine have been approved by FDA for donor screening, diagnosis, prognosis and patient monitoring.


The window period is the time from infection until a test can detect any change. The average window period with antibody tests is 22 days. Antigen testing cuts the window period
to approximately 16 days and NAT further reduces this period to 12 days. FDA 2001

Antibody tests are reported as positive or negative. Performance of these tests is described in terms of:

* sensitivity the percentage of the results that will be positive when HIV is present
* specificity the percentage of the results that will be negative when HIV not present.

All diagnostic tests have limitations, and sometimes their use may produce erroneous or questionable results.

* false positive results indicate that HIV is present when, in fact, it is not.
* false negative results do not identify HIV that is present.

Nonspecific reactions, hypergammaglobulinemia, or the presence of antibodies directed to other infectious agents that may be antigenically similar to HIV can produce false positive results. Autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, can also cause false positive results. Indeed, the scientific literature has documented more than 60-70 different factors other than past or present infection with HIV that can cause a positive reaction on HIV tests – including flu, flu vaccination, herpes simplex, rheumatoid arthritis, malaria, tuberculosis, antibodies to leprosy – and even pregnancy. A list of the factors known to cause
false-positive results, together with references to the medical literature for each factor, is available at

Screening donor blood and cellular products

Tests selected to screen donor blood, blood components and cellular products provide a high degree of confidence that HIV is not present. A combination of antibody, antigen and nucleic acid tests are used by blood banks in Western countries. The WHO estimated that in 2000 inadequate blood screening in
some countries resulted in 1 million new HIV infections.

Diagnosis of HIV infection

Different tests are selected for the diagnosis of HIV infection in a particular person, which requires a high degree of confidence that HIV is present. In the United States, this is achieved by an algorithm using two tests to detect antibodies, which are the body’s response to infection. If antibodies are detected by an initial test based on the ELISA method, then a second test based on the Western blot
procedure determines the size of the antigens in the test kit binding to the antibodies. This testing algorithm is claimed to have an accuracy of 99.50%, which means that testing 100,000 people not infected with HIV would be expected to produce 500 false positive results. The predictive value of this testing algorithm depends on the prevalence of HIV infection in the group being tested. If 10% of the group being tested is infected with HIV, less than 2% of the positive results will be false positive. But if less that 1 in 7,500 people in the group being test are infected with HIV, then over 90% of the positive results will be false positive.

Antibody tests

Antibody tests are specifically designed for the routine testing of HIV in adults, are inexpensive, and are very accurate. If a person does not have a realistic risk of infection, then these tests are not necessary.

Antibody tests give false negative results during the window period of between three weeks and six months from the time of HIV infection until the immune system produces detectable amounts of antibodies. During this window period an infected person can transmit HIV to others, without their HIV infection being detectable using an antibody test. Antiretroviral therapy during the window period can delay the formation
of antibodies and extend the window period beyond 12 months. C B Hare, B L Pappalardo, M P Busch, B Phelps, S S Alexander, C Ramstead, J A Levy, F M Hecht. (2004). “Negative HIV antibody test results among individuals treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) during acute/early infection”. The XV International AIDS Conference, Abstract no. MoPeB3107.

A person exposed to HIV would be expected to produce antibodies that specifically bind to HIV. The development of antibody tests for HIV has been complicated because all human blood has large quantities of antibodies that bind to components of the antibody test kits. For this reason, the
blood to be tested is diluted in an attempt to detect antibodies that have been produced after exposure to HIV. Manufacturers of all these test kits state that, “There is no single recognised standard for establishing the presence or absence of antibodies to HIV in human blood.”


The ELISA test was the first screening test commonly employed. It has a high sensitivity. The low specificity of the test is because antibodies attach to antigens in the test kits “by accident”, even though the person has never been exposed to HIV. About 80% of positive ELISA tests are followed by
a negative Western-Blot test, and therefore regarded as false positive. The test proceeds by the general ELISA method: the person’s serum is diluted 400 fold and applied to a
plate to which HIV antigens have been attached. Some of the antibodies in the serum may bind to these HIV antigens. The plate is then washed to remove all other components of the serum. Then a specially prepared “secondary antibody” — an antibody that binds to human antibodies—is applied to the plate, followed by washes. This secondary antibody is chemically linked in advance to an enzyme. Thus the plate will contain enzyme in proportion to the amount of secondary antibody bound to the plate. A substrate for the enzyme
is applied, and catalysis by the enzyme leads to a change in color or fluorescence. As the ELISA results are reported as a number, the most controversial aspect of this test is deciding the “cut off” point between positive and negative.

Western blot

The Western blot test uses the general Western blot procedure. HIV-infected cells are opened and the contained proteins are entered into a slab of gel to which a voltage is applied. Different proteins will move with different velocities in this field, depending on their size, while their electrical
charge is levelled by a substance, called sodium lauryl sulfate. Once the proteins are well separated, they are transferred to a membrane and the procedure continues similar to ELISA: the person’s diluted serum is applied to the membrane and antibodies in the serum may attach to some of the HIV proteins. Antibodies which do not attach are washed away, and enzyme-linked antibodies with the capability to
attach to the person’s antibodies first detect to which HIV proteins the person has antibodies.

There no universal criteria for interpreting the Western blot test: the number of viral bands which must be present vary from definition to definition. If no viral bands are detected, the result is negative. If at least one viral band for each of the GAG, POL, and ENV gene-product groups are present, the
result is positive. Such a criterion, however, is not sensitive enough for clinical use, as the absence of antibodies to p24 or to p31 is relatively common even in patients who are clearly infected with HIV. Thus the three-gene-product approach to Western blot interpretation has not been adopted for public health or clinical practice. The Association of State and Territorial Public Health Laboratory
Directors (ASTPHLD) and CDC standard ignores p31 results, and interprets the presence of gp41 and gp120/160 bands as a positive result. Tests in which less than the required number of viral bands are detected are reported as indeterminate: a person who has an indeterminate result should be retested, as later tests may be more conclusive. Almost all HIV-infected persons with indeterminate Western-Blot results will develop a positive result when tested in one month; persistently indeterminate results over a period of six months suggests the results are not due to HIV infection.

The Western blot test is usually performed after a positive ELISA test, because many samples that are ELISA negative have antibodies to one or more of the proteins in the Western blot test, and would give inaccurate results, especially when interpreted according to criteria which require a complete
absence of all viral and non-viral bands to report a Western-Blot result as negative rather than indeterminate.

Rapid or point-of-care tests

Rapid Antibody Tests are qualitative immunoassays intended for use as a point-of-care test to aid in the diagnosis of HIV infection. These tests should be used in conjunction with the clinical status, history, and risk factors of the person being tested. The specificity of Rapid Antibody Tests for
in low-risk populations has not been evaluated. These tests should be used in appropriate multi-test algorithms designed for statistical validation of rapid HIV test results.

If no antibodies to HIV are detected, this does not mean the person has not been infected with HIV. It may take several months after HIV infection for the antibody response to reach detectable levels, during which time rapid testing for antibodies to HIV will not be indicative of true infection status. A comprehensive risk history and clinical judgement should be considered before concluding that an individual is not infected with HIV.

OraQuick is an antibody test that provides results in 20 minutes. The blood, plasma or oral fluid is mixed in a vial with developing solution, and the results are read from a sticklike testing device.

Orasure is an HIV test which uses mucosal transudate from the tissues of cheeks and gums. It is an antibody test which first employs ELISA, then Western Blot.

There is also a urine test; it employs both the ELISA and the Western Blot method.

Home Access Express HIV-1 Test is a FDA-approved home test: the patient collects a drop of blood and mails the sample to a laboratory; the results are obtained over the phone.

Interpreting antibody tests

ELISA testing alone cannot be used to diagnose AIDS, even if the recommended investigation of reactive specimens suggests a high probability that the antibody to HIV 1 is present. In the United States, such positive tests are not reported out unless confirmed by a Western Blot test.

The ELISA antibody tests were developed to provide a high level of confidence that donated blood was NOT infected with HIV. It is therefore not possible to conclude that blood rejected for transfusion because of a positive ELISA antibody test is in fact infected with HIV. Usually, retesting the donor in several months will produce a negative ELISA antibody test.

All laboratory tests can produce ‘false alarms’. This is a positive result in the screening test, which, on confirmatory testing is shown to be negative. False reactions are a recognised complication of all biological tests and are perfectly normal. They are of no significance for the health of the donor.

It is known that false positive results due to factors unrelated to exposure to the HIV virus are common with the ELISA test. False positives can be caused by antibodies to viruses other than HIV, antibodies produced by pregnancy, and other medical conditions. A false positive results DOES NOT indicate that you are infected with the AIDS virus, nor does it indicate a condition of significant risk to your health.

The evidence for regarding the risks and benefits of HIV screening was reviewed in July 2005. (“Screening for HIV: A Review of the Evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force”, Annals of Internal Medicine, Chou et. al, Volume 143 Issue 1, pp. 55-73. [1]): “The use of repeatedly reactive enzyme immunoassay followed by confirmatory Western blot or immunofluorescent assay remains the standard method for diagnosing HIV-1 infection. A large study of HIV testing
in 752 U.S. laboratories reported a sensitivity of 99.7% and specificity of 98.5% for enzyme immunoassay, and studies in U.S. blood donors reported specificities of 99.8% and greater than 99.99%. With confirmatory Western blot, the chance of a false-positive identification in a low-prevalence setting
is about 1 in 250 000 (95% CI, 1 in 173 000 to 1 in 379 000).”



The p24 antigen test detects the presence of the p24 protein of HIV (also known as CA), a major core protein of the virus. Monoclonal antibodies specific to the p24 protein are mixed
with the person’s blood. Any p24 protein in the person’s blood will stick to the monoclonal antibody and enzyme-linked antibody to the monoclonal antibodies to p24 causes a color change if p24 was present in the sample.

This test is now used routinely to screen blood donations, thus reducing the window to about 16 days. It is not useful for general diagnostics, as it has very low sensitivity and only works during a certain time period after infection before the body produces antibodies to the p24 protein.

Nucleic acid based tests

Nucleic acid based tests amplify and detect a 142 base target sequence located in a highly conserved region of the HIV gag gene. Since 2001, donated blood in the United States, has been screened with nucleic acid based tests, shortening the window to about 12 days. Since these tests are relatively expensive, the blood is screened by first pooling some 10-20 samples, testing these together, and if the pool tests positive, each sample is retested individually. A different version of this test is intended for use in conjunction with clinical presentation and other laboratory markers of disease
progress for the clinical management of HIV-1 infected patients.

In the RT-PCR test, the viral RNA is extracted from the patient’s plasma and is treated with reverse transcriptase so that the RNA of the virus is transcribed into DNA. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is applied, using two primers thought to be unique to the virus’s genome. After the PCR amplification process is completed, which takes some time, the resulting amplified segments bind to specific oligonucleotides bound to the vessel wall and are then made visible with a probe that’s bound to an enzyme. The amount of virus in the sample can be quantified with sufficient accuracy to detect three fold changes.

In the Quantiplex bDNA or branched DNA test plasma is centrifugated to concentrate the viruses, which are then opened to release the RNA. Special oligonucleotides are added which bind to viral RNA and to certain oligonucleotides bound to the wall of the vessel. In this way, viral RNA is
fastened to the wall. Then new oligonucleotides are added which bind at several locations to this RNA; and other oligonucelotides which bind at several locations to those oligonucleotides. This is done to amplify the signal. Finally, oligonucleotides that bind to the last set of oligonucleotides and that are bound to an enzyme are added; the enzyme action causes a color reaction which allows to quantify the viral RNA in the original sample. Monitoring the effects of antiretroviral therapy by serial measurements of plasms HIV-1 RNA with this test has been validated for patients with
viral loads greater than 25,000 copies per millilitre. reference

Other tests used in HIV/AIDS treatment

The CD4 T-cell count is not an HIV test, but rather a procedure where the number of CD4 T-cells in one microlitre of blood are counted in a standard medical lab test after a blood draw. This test does not check for the presence of HIV. It is used monitor the immune system function in HIV+ people. Declining CD4 T-cell counts are considered to be a marker of the progression of HIV infection. In HIV+ people, AIDS is officially diagnosed when the count drops below 200 cells or when certain opportunistic infections occur. This use of a CD4 count as an AIDS criterion occurred in 1992; the value of 200 was chosen because it corresponded with an increased likelihood of opportunistic infections. Lower levels of CD4 counts in people with AIDS are indicators that prophylaxis against certain types of opportunistic infections should be instituted.

Low CD4 T-cell counts are associated with a variety of conditions, including many viral infections, bacterial infections, parasitic infections, sepsis, tuberculosis, coccidioidomycosis, burns, trauma, intravenous injections of foreign proteins, malnutrition, over-exercising, pregnancy, normal daily variation, psychological stress, and social isolation.

This test is also used occasionally to estimate immune system function for people whose CD4 T cells are impaired for reasons other than HIV infection, which include several blood diseases, several genetic disorders, and the side effects of many chemotherapy drugs.

Generally speaking, the lower the number of T cells, the lower the immune system’s function will be. Normal T4 counts are between 500 and 1500 CD4+ T cells per microliter and the counts may fluctuate in healthy people, depending on recent infection status, nutrition, exercise and other factors – even
the time of day. Women tend to have somewhat lower counts than men.

Symptoms of T4 cell immune collapse are almost never seen until the number drops below 200. Similar symptoms of immune collapse are generally seen in people with very low T4 cell counts, whether this immunosuppression is caused by HIV, cancer, or some other disease. However, the long-term treatment differs substantially, because it needs to address the cause of the immunosuppression.
A very frequently asked question – “Do I have HIV?” One of the most common questions we hear is people asking if certain symptoms mean they have HIV. The only certain way to know is to get an HIV test but there are signs and symptoms you can watch out…